Prof. Bus, A.G. (Adriana)

  • Full professor
  • Learning problems and impairments

Telephone number: +31 (0)71 527 2727
Faculty / Department: Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Instituut Pedagogische Wetenschappen, Orthopedagogiek

1977-1979 School psychologist
1979-1987 Assistant professor, Department of Paedology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
1987-1990 Associate professor, Department of Paedology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands
1990-2005 Associate professor, Department of Learning Problems and Impairments, Leiden University, The Netherlands
2000 (March-August) Visiting professor (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor)
2000 (Sept-Dec) Visiting professor (University of California, Berkeley)
2004-2005 Professor with special assignment: emergent literacy
2005 (Dec) - Full professor (prevention and remediation of learning problems)

Other Experience and Professional Memberships

  • American Educational Research Association
  • European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction
  • International Reading Association
  • Scientic Studies of Reading
  • Member of editorial board of Early Education and Development, Educational Research Review, Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Literacy Research, Reading Research Quarterly
  • Member of Reading Research Quarterly’s Consulting Editorial Board (2012-)
  • Peer review committees of The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research
  • Peer review committee of the scientific research organization in Flanders, Belgium (2006-)
  • Committee member Albert J. Harris Award (IRA) (2010-2012)
  • Scientific Advisory Board of Nordic Center of Excellence, Nordforsk, Education for Tomorrow (2013-)


  • Fellowship Deutsche Akademische Austausch Dienst (1977-1978)
  • ISED artikel-prijs (2003): De Jong, M. T., & Bus, A.G. (2002). Quality of book-reading matters. An experiment with the same book in a regular or electronic format. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 145-155.
  • Computers in Reading Research Award for groundbreaking work in the area of talking books awarded by The Technology in Literacy Education Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Reading Association (2004)
  • Award for academy colloquium by the KNAW (2006)
  • Social Service 2007-2010 Award of the Institute of Education and Child Studies, Leiden University (2011) for the Lolle Nauta Foundation
  • Member of the Reading Hall of Fame (IRA), (2013-)

Selected service

  • Head of learning problems clinic at Leiden University (2006-)
  • Chairman of examining board, Institute of education, Leiden University (2007-2012)
  • Member of national advisory committee on interventions in schools (2007-)
  • Head of department of psychopathology at Leiden University (2012-)
  • Consultant of the Systematic Assessment of Book Reading (SABR) measurement project funded by IES carried out by Tricia Zucker (University of Texas in Houston), Jill Pentimonti, Laura Justice, and Ryan Bowles (The Ohio State University) (2014-)

PhD students-completed

  • Anna Both-de Vries, It’s all in the name, April 2006 
  • Marian Verhallen, Video storybooks as a bridge to literacy, November 2009
  • Suzanne Mol, To read or not to read. December, 2010
  • Verna van der Kooy-Hofland, Differential susceptibility to an early literacy intervention, September 2011
  • Carienke Kegel, Differential susceptibility in education: Interaction between genes, regulatory skills, and computer games, October 2011
  • Daisy Smeets, Storybook apps as a tool for early literacy development, December 2012
  • Neeltje Davidse, Links between executive functions and early literacy and numeracy, June 2014

Selected referred articles published in last five years

  • Bus, A.G., & Out, D. (2009). Unraveling genetic and environmental components of early literacy: a twin study. Reading and Writing, 22, 293-306. doi 10.1007/s11145-008-9115-0
  • Bus, A.G., Verhallen, M.J.A.J. & van der Kooy-Hofland, V.A.C. (2009). Digital picture storybooks. Better: Evidence-based Education, spring 2009, 16-17 (pdf).
  • Kegel, C.A.T., Van der Kooy-Hofland, V.A.C. & Bus, A.G. (2009). Improving early phoneme skills with a computer program: Differential effects of regulatory skills. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 549-554. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2009.07.002.
  • Mol, S.E., Bus, A.G., & de Jong, M.T. (2009). Interactive book reading in early education: A tool to stimulate print knowledge as well as oral language. Review of Educational Research, 79, 979-1007.
  • Verhallen, M.J.A.J., & Bus, A.G. (2009). Video storybooks reading as a remedy for vocabulary deficits: Outcomes and processes. Journal for Educational Research Online, 1, 172-196
  • Both-de Vries, A.C., & Bus, A.G. (2010). The proper name as starting point for basic reading skills. Reading and Writing, 23, 173-187. DOI 10.1007/s11145-008-9158-2
  • Verhallen, M.J.A.J., & Bus, A.G. (2010). Low-Income immigrant pupils learning vocabulary through digital picture storybooks. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 54-61. doi: 10.1037/a0017133.
  • Davidse, N., De Jong, M.T., Bus, A.G., Huijbregts, S.C.J., & Swaab, H. (2011). Cognitive and Environmental Predictors of Early Literacy Skills. Reading & Writing, 24, 395–412. doi: 10.1007/s11145-010-9233-3
  • Kegel, C.A.T., & Bus, A.G. (2012). Feedback as a Pivotal Quality of a Web-Based Early Literacy Computer Program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 182–192. doi: 10.1037/a0025849
  • Kegel, C.A.T., Bus, A.G., & Van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility in early literacy instruction through computer games: The role of the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene (DRD4). Mind, Brain, and Education, 5, 71-78.
  • Mol, S.E., & Bus, A.G. (2011). To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, 137(2), 267-296. doi: 10.1037/a0021890
  • Van Dijken, M., Bus, A.G., & De Jong, M.T. (2011). Open Access to Living Books on Internet: A New Chance to Bridge the Linguistic Gap for At-Risk Preschoolers? European Journal of Special Needs Education, 26, 299-310.
  • Verhallen, M.J.A.J., & Bus, A.G. (2011). Young second language learners’ visual attention to illustrations in storybooks. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 11, 480–500. doi: 10.1177/1468798411416785
  • Tambulukani, G., & Bus, A.G. (2012). Linguistic Diversity: A Contributory Factor to Reading Problems in Zambian Schools. Applied Linguistics, 33/2, 141–160. doi:10.1093/applin/amr039
  • Van der Kooy-Hofland, V.A.C., Bus, A.G., & Roskos, K.A. (2012). Effects of a brief but intensive remedial computer intervention in a sub-sample of kindergartners with early literacy delays. Reading and Writing, 25, 1479–1497. doi 10.1007/s11145-011-9328-5
  • Smeets, D.J.H., & Bus, A.G. (2012). Interactive Electronic Storybooks for Kindergartners to Promote Vocabulary Growth. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 112, 36-55. doi 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.12.003
  • Van der Kooy-Hofland, V.A.C., Van der Kooy, J., Bus, A.G., Van IJzendoorn, M.H., & Bonsel, G. (2012). Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children with Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 337–349. doi 10.1037/a0026984
  • Smeets, D.J.H., Van Dijken, M.J., & Bus, A.G. (2012). Using electronic storybooks to support word learning in children with severe language impairments. Journal of Learning Disabilities. doi: 10.1177/0022219412467069
  • Kegel, C.A.T., & Bus, A.G. (2013). Links between DRD4, executive attention, and alphabetic skills in a nonclinical sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 305-312. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02604.x
  • Bus, A.G. (2013). Educational software for young children. Know What Works and Why, 1, 14-21.
  • Matafwali, B. & Bus, A.G. (2013). Lack of Familiarity with the Language of Instruction: A main Cause of Reading Failure by Grades 1 and 2 Pupils in Zambia. Insights on Learning Disabilities.
  • Davidse, N.J., de Jong, M.T., & Bus, A.G. (2014). Explaining common variance shared by early numeracy and early literacy. Reading and Writing, 27, 631–648. doi 10.1007/s11145-013-9465-0.
  • Kegel, C.A.T., & Bus, A.G. (2014). Evidence for causal relations between executive functions and alphabetic skills based on longitudinal data. Infant and Child Development, 23, 22–35. doi: 10.1002/icd.1827.
  • Both-de Vries, A.C., & Bus, A.G. (2014). Visual processing of pictures and letters in alphabet books and the implications for letter learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39, 156-163.
  • Smeets, D.J.H., & Bus, A.G. (2014). The Interactive Animated E-book as a Word Learning Device for Kindergartners. Applied Psycholinguistics doi:10.1017/S0142716413000556.
  • Davidse, N.J., De Jong, M.T., Shaul, S., & Bus, A.G. (2014). A twin-case study of developmental number sense impairment. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 31, 221-236.
  • Bus, A.G., Takacs, Z.K., & Kegel, C.A.T. (in press). Affordances and limitations of electronic storybooks for young children’s literacy: Consequences for engineering apps. Developmental Review.
  • Van den Berg, H., & Bus, A. G. (in press). Beneficial effects of BookStart in temperamentally highly reactive infants. Individual Differences and Learning.
  • Plak, R., Kegel, C.A.T., & Bus, A.G. (2015, in press). Genetic differential susceptibility in literacy delayed children: A randomized controlled trial on emergent literacy in kindergarten. Development & Psychopathology.

Books/ chapters published in last five years

  • Bus, A.G., & Neuman, S.B. (Editors) (2009). Multimedia and Literacy Development: Improving Achievement for Young Learners (291 pages) New York: Taylor & Francis Group.
  • Bus, A.G., Verhallen, M.J.A.J., & De Jong, T.M. (2010). How Onscreen Storybooks Contribute to Early Literacy. In: Adriana G. Bus & Susan B. Neuman (Editors), Multimedia and Literacy Development. Improving Achievement for Young Learners (pp.153-167). New York: Taylor & Francis Group. 
  • Both-de Vries, A.C., & Bus, A.G. (2010). It’s all in the name. In: D. Aram & O. Korat (Eds.), Literacy Studies, Literacy Development and Enhancement Across Orthographies and Cultures (pp.3-16). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0834-6_1 
  • Bus, A.G., Van IJzendoorn, M.H., & Mol, S.E. (2011). Meta-analysis. In Duke, N.K.& Mallette, M.H., Literacy Research Methodologies, Second Edition (pp 270-300). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Van der Kooy-Hofland, V., Kegel, C., & Bus, A.G. (2011). Evidence-based computer interventions targeting phonological awareness to prevent reading problems in at-risk young students. In: S. Neuman & D. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of Early Literacy Research, Vol 3 (pp 214-227). New York: The Guilford Press. 
  • Harris, K.R., Graham, S., Urdan,T. (eds. In chief), Bus, A.G., Major, S. & Swanson, H.L. (Ass. eds.) (2012). APA Educational Psychology Handbook: Application to Learning and Teaching, Volume 3 (668 pp). Washington, D.C.: APA. 
  • Bus, A.G., & Kegel, C.A.T. (2012). Effects of an adaptive game on early literacy skills in at risk populations. In O. Korat & A. Shamir (Eds.), Technology as a Support for Literacy Achievements for Children at Risk (pp. 11-20). New York: Springer 
  • Bus, A.G., Leseman, P.P.M., & Neuman, S.B. (2012). Methods for Preventing Early Academic Difficulties. In: K.R. Harris, S. Graham, T. Urdan (eds. In chief), A.G. Bus, S. Major, & H. L. Swanson (Ass. eds.), APA Educational Psychology Handbook: Application to Learning and Teaching, Volume 3 (pp 527-550). Washington, D.C.: APA. 
  • Smeets, D.J.H., & Bus, A.G. (2013). Picture storybooks go digital: Pros and cons. In Neuman, S. B., Gambrell, L. B. (Eds.), & Massey, C. (Ass. Ed.), Reading instruction in the age of common core standards (pp. 176-189). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Publications in Dutch journals/books in last five years

  • Bus, A.G. (2009). Wat weten we over ICT en…Taalontwikkeling van jonge kinderen. Het effect van digitale boeken en interactief leesmateriaal op leesvaardigheid van peuters en kleuters. Onderzoeksreeks Stichting Kennisnet, Nr. 15 (pp.22) 
  • Smeets, D., & Bus, A.G. (2008). De computer leest voor: een kansrijke vernieuwing in kleuterklassen. Stichting Lezen Reeks 14. Delft: Eburon (33 pp). 
  • Bus, A.G. (2009). Storybook Exposure: Heavenly Bliss and Virtual Tutors. In D. Schram (Ed.), Reading and Watching: What does the written word have that images don’t? (pp. 25-35). Stichting Lezen Reeks 15. Delft: Eburon. 
  • Davidse, N.J., De Jong, M.T., & Bus, A.G. (2010). De invloed van executieve functies op de vroege leesontwikkeling. In: Zelfsturing als basis voor de ontwikkeling van het kind. Een orientatie vanuit wetenschap en praktijk. Sardes Speciale Editie, 9, 28-32. 
  • Bus, A.G., Kegel, C.A.T., & Van der Kooy-Hofland, V.A.C. (2011). Interactief leesonderwijs voor kleuters. In P. F. de Jong & H. M. Y. Koomen (red.), Interventie bij onderwijsleerproblemen (pp. 83-93). Apeldoorn: Garant.
  • Mol, S.E., & Bus, A.G. (2011). Lezen loont een leven lang. Levende Talen Tijdschrift, 12, 3-16.
  • Mol, S.E., & Bus, A.G. (2011). Een vroeg begin is het halve werk. De rol van vrijetijdlezen in de taal- en leesontwikkeling van kinderen en jongeren. In Schram, D. (red.), Waarom zou je (nu) lezen? (pp. 91-110). Delf: Eburon.
  • Bus, A.G. (2012). Educatieve software voor jonge kinderen. Weten Wat Werkt en Waarom, 1, 12-16 (pdf)
  • Bus, A.G., Davidse, N.J., & De Jong, M.T. (2012). Snel afgeleide kleuters lopen risico op leerachterstand. Tijdschrift voor Remedial Teaching, 20, 20-23.
  • Smeets, D.J.H., & Bus, A.G. (2013). Digitale prentenboeken. JSW, 97/10, 38-41.
  • Nielen, T.M.J., & Bus, A.G. (2013). Ontwikkeling van de leesattitude op de basisschool en de rol van sekse, leesniveau, de leescultuur thuis en kenmerken van de schoolbibliotheek. In D. Schram (Ed.), De aarzelende lezer over de streep (pp. 207-226). Delft, Nederland: Eburon. 
  • Van den Berg, H., & Bus, A.G. (2013). Over het belang van BoekStart- een programma dat ouders stimuleert vanaf vier maanden voor te lezen, verhaaltjes te vertellen en rijmpjes te reciteren. In D. Schram (Ed.), De aarzelende lezer over de streep (pp. 27-40). Delft: Eburon.

Presentation in memory of Iris Levin (pdf)

Studying emergent writing - an expedition together with Iris Levin

Interviews and in the News

  • Peters & T. Bruin, Lezen, lezen, lezen. Speerpunten uit het onderzoek van Adriana Bus. Zone. Tijdschrift voor Ontwikkelingsgericht Onderwijs, 8, 2009, 20-21.
  • Taalvaardigheid stimuleren? De computer leest voor! Interview met Adriana G. Bus. InDruk, zomer 2009, pagina 15.
  • Karen Ghonem-Woets (2009). Adriana Bus over de leereffecten van ‘levende boeken’. Het verschil tussen boeken en broccoli. Leesgoed, 55, 55-56.
  • Interview met Nic van Son, Levende boeken niet zomaar geschikt voor ESM-leerlingen, verschenen in Van Horen Zeggen, 2010
  • Positive feedback boosts attention. NewScientist Jun. 4, 2011, p. 20
  • Praise research! Positive feedback can help ADHD kids learn better; by Kayt Sukel. Innovations, University of Phoenix
  • Pretpark voor kind van nu; door Monique Prins. Wegener NieuwsMedia BV, 2011
  • Interview met Ilona Plichart (2011), Videoprentenboeken: meer dan gescande plaatjes met tekst. Leesgoed, 5, 21-23
  • Geciteerd in Elsevier, 16 juni 2012, ‘Slimme boekenwurmen’, door José van der Sman
  • Geciteerd in Volkskrant, 11 april 2013, ‘Baken voor boekmijdende kinderen’, door Peter van Ammelrooy
  • Geciteerd in NRC, 21 september 2013, ‘In Nederland blijven alleen lege boekenkasten over’, door Bastiaan Bommeljé
  • Met voorlezen kun je niet vroeg genoeg beginnen, Leidsch Dagblad, 3 juni 2014.

Ongoing Research Support

2012 Evaluation of the intervention Library in the schools (Stichting Lezen & SIOB)
2013 De causale rol van BoekStart in vroege taal- en leesontwikkeling (Stichting Lezen)
2013 De invloed van feedback op de leesmotivatie in groep 7 (Stichting Lezen)
2010 Evaluation of BookStart (Ministry of Education)
2007 On the efficacy of digitized storybooks for Young learners with attention problems (The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO): 411-07-216)

Completed Research Support (selected)

2010 Dutch Reading Association (Stichting Lezen)  
2008 Nieuwe kansen voor de ontwikkeling van beginnende leesvaardigheden in risicogroepen door inzet van de computer (Kennisnet)  
2005 Becoming literate by means of the internet (The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO): 411-05-117)  
2003 Bevordering van ontluikende geletterdheid door elektronische boeken in voorschoolse educatie (The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research: 411-02-506)  

Last Modified: 31-03-2016