Look at the Sally and Ann Task. From which age onwards are normally developing children able to understand that Sally will be checking the basket?
a. from 1 year of age
b. from 2,5 years of age
c. from 4 years of age
d. from 6 years of age
Theory of Mind
Theory of mind (ToM) is a person’s ability to form an image of something. A person uses ToM when he or she tries to imagine what another person sees, feels or thinks from that other person’s perspective. This ability develops from about 4 or 5 years of age. Before that time, children are not yet able to reason from a perspective other than their own. That is why they assume that if they cannot see the other person, the other person cannot see them either.
A great deal of research has been done on ToM, see:
One of the most important characteristics of people with schizophrenia is:
a. they are alternately depressed and cheerful
b. they cannot really distinguish between reality and fantasy anymore
c. the two halves of their brain are not connected (split brain)
d. they have two or more personalities that alternately come to the fore.
In everyday language, people often say that they feel or become schizophrenic, for instance, when they have to be in two places at once. This seems to indicate that a person with schizophrenia has multiple personalities. That is a misconception: having multiple personalities is a symptom of Multiple Personality Disorder. People with schizophrenia often have extended periods of delusions or hallucinations and this means they have trouble distinguishing reality from fantasy.
Psychologists and psychiatrists use a book that describes the symptoms and characteristics of all psychiatric disorders, this is the DSM. Check the description of schizophrenia
If you want to run a campaign to get people to stop smoking, is a campaign poster like the one in our booth an effective tool?
a. yes, this is the best way to get someone to stop smoking
b. yes, but it only works with young people
c. yes, but it only works with adults
d. no, this is not a good way to get someone to stop smoking
Punishment (and, by extension, instilling fear in someone) often fails to get the desired effect because it does not make clear to the person being punished what he or she is expected to do. On the other hand, rewarding a person for showing appropriate behaviour, will make clear to that person what kind of behaviour is wanted (Bandura).
Fear-inducing information can be effective if:
1. The desired behaviour is clearly described;
2. People feel that showing the behaviour will prove useful (response efficacy);
3. People are confident that they can actually produce that behaviour (self-efficacy).
If these three requirements are not met, or if the level of fear is too high, people will usually deny or avoid the risky behaviour and this will lead to no change or even a negative change in behaviour.
If you take a bad fall in the street and you need help, you will have the best chance of getting help:
a. if there are very few people in the street
b. if there are quite a few people in the street
c. if it is really crowded in the street, like during a festival
d. it has nothing to do with the number of people present in the street.
Research has shown that the more people are present in a location at a certain time, the less responsible they feel for taking action and making decisions. This does not only hold for taking action if anything bad happens to another person, but also when our own safety is at stake. Various experiments have shown that people who were filling in a questionnaire in a room that was filling up with smoke would sooner inform someone about the smoke when they were alone in the room than when they were with other people in the room. That is why you often hear stories of how people are almost drowning and have to be saved by ambulance personnel while there are a lot of bystanders who do nothing. See below for a taped experiment and explanation of how this works.
What is the best way for an organization to come up with new, creative ideas?
a. organize a brainstorm session in which everybody can participate
b. let everyone think about it by themselves first and then get together as a group
c. get the head of the organization to think about it and base the plans on the outcome
d. find out what the competition does, and implement the improved version.
It is often said that brainstorming in a group gives the best end result because one person’s creativity can stimulate another person’s creativity. However, research shows that a group of people often has a restraining effect because people feel they cannot just call out whatever they think about a certain topic. It often happens that the first expression of an idea is nipped in the bud by someone else. That is why it is better to have everyone think of ideas by themselves first and then discuss them in the group.
In a study of effects of alcohol on driving ability, the control group should be given
a. a high dosage of alcohol.
b. one-half the dosage given the experimental group.
c. a driving test before and after drinking alcohol.
d. no alcohol at all.
A researcher will have to give alcohol to some of the research participants to find out what the effect of alcohol on their driving abilities is. Alcohol is the variable that is researched and the control group will remain sober to receive a baseline measurement we can compare the other groups with. The researcher will also have to keep all other factors at the same level, such as the number of years that the participants are holding a driver’s licence or their age.
In what respect does the buying behaviour of people who feel good about themselves differ from that of people who do not feel good about themselves?
a. people who do not feel good about themselves are inclined to walk around purposelessly and return home empty handed.
b. people who do not feel good about themselves are inclined to buy cheap, run-of-the-mill products; they feel they are not worth any luxurious products.
c. people who do not feel good about themselves are inclined to buy more luxurious, status-related products; they try to compensate for the fact they do not feel good about themselves.
d. there is no relationship between buying behaviour and emotional condition.
People around the world regard luxury products as status symbols. The time when you need these products most is the time when you are not feeling great and your self-esteem is at risk. A researcher once divided people into two groups:
Group 1: he told people negative comments prior to the experiment (threatening their self-esteem).
Group 2: he gave people in this group no or positive comments (neutral or affirmative self-esteem input).
Group 1 showed a greater tendency to spend money on luxury products than group 2. It seems that group 1 people wanted to compensate for their potentially lowered self-esteem and fix it by buying luxury goods.
See for a detailed description of this study: Luxury goods are not only status symbols - they provide psychological armour as well
Do the test (the Stroop task) that belongs to this question. Which part of your brain is specialised in which domain?
a. the left hemisphere is specialised in language and colour perception
b. the right hemisphere is specialised in language and colour perception
c. the left half is specialised in language, the right half is specialised in colour perception
d. the left half is specialised in colour perception, the right half is specialised in language
The Stroop Task
When you did the Stroop Task, you probably realized how difficult it is to ignore the word and focus on naming the colour. One of the reasons behind it is that the left half of your brain (for most people responsible for speech production) wants to read out the word, while the right half of brain tries to name the colour. An interference of conflicting information is the result. You will realize that the effect is much less if the words are written upside down: the word-signal from the left part of the brain is then less intense. Try it out in this film:
You can see two brain scans. One is from a healthy brain, the other one from someone with Alzheimer’s disease. In which one can you see characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease?
a. in the left scan, because there is less white matter (neurons)
b. in the left scan, because the skull is less visible
c. in the right scan, because you see less black patches (less brain fluid)
d. in the right scan, because the skull is better visible
You looked at two MRI scans to answer the quiz. In the MRI scan, brain cells (neurons) are shown in white/ grey and ventricles (cavities filled with fluid) are shown in black. As you can see, the left picture brain scan shows a lot more cavities and a lot less brain cells. People that suffer from Alzheimer’s lose brain cells and the empty space fills up with brain fluids. The right MRI shows a healthy brain. The brain fluid (the butterfly shaped black patch in the middle) that is present is needed to transport nutrients to the brain.
A student who is able to complete secondary education at preparatory university level probably has an IQ of
a. about 100
b. about 110
c. about 120
d. about 130
What is IQ exactly? People talk about IQ as a given all the time, but scientists are still discussing the elements that make up the concept of intelligence because it is an abstract concept that we have made up. Many tests have been developed to measure IQ. The results on these tests show that a normal distribution of the IQ of the population can be made, with 100 being the mean.
Researchers then checked which average level of IQ was related to which level of education. Because there are various ways of measuring IQ, there are also different values. For VWO (or pre-university high school) level, the values resulting from the various tests are between 115 and 125, so 120 on average.